Perdagangan, Konflik, dan Teorema Coase


barang publik intemasional, overgrazing, the tragedy of the commons, credible commitment, teorema Coase


This paper shows that how costly to establish market and to operate it. It goes almost without saying that conflict arises when actions of one country adversely affect domestic market of other countries, or efforts to protect domestic market have reciprocal effects on other countries. What is the nature of market today? In a free trade system, the ownership of common market occurs, when market expansion by countries has unrestricted access, because no one country owns the common market.

Since market expansion by countries has such excessive access, and no one country is legally allowed to protect its domestic market, then no one country has a claim on its domestic market. When there is unlimited access and no claim on domestic market, the market has qualities of international public good, such as joint  consumption and high exclusion costs. When the market becomes international public good, a country tends to overgraze in other countries. Since overgrazing activities of one country Innict the other ones, conflict among countries must develop. The tragedy of the commons Is a rule.